Cold - Frostbite
Experts say that cold wasasesoria y cooperativa de la mano the most important disabling condition encountered by military personnel in World War II. In the British army alone there were almost 85,000 cases of frostbite. In the fighting in Korea, exposure to wet and dry cold was the most serious condition confronting the doctors who had to keep patients or soldiers in condition to carry on their work. The human being can withstand extreme cold as low as 50 degrees below zero, with proper clothing and proper nutrition. The greatest danger comes from exposure to cold without adequate protection. When the body is exposed to cold, the first defense is for the blood vessels in the skin to become constricted so that there is a fall in the skin temperature without much change in the temperature inside the body. One does not experience discomfort from extreme cold in the fingers and toes until their temperature hits about 60 degrees Fahrenheit from a normal of 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit for this portion of the body. There is great discomfort when the temperature of the shoulders, back, or legs drops below 80 degrees Fahrenheit from a normal of 90 to 95. The body responds with intermittent shivering in an attempt to raise the temperature. Even the warmest clothing will not protect the wearer in temperatures below the freezing point unless there is exercise. Fingers and toes suffer from cold more than any other part of the body, first becoming painful, then numb and finally frostbitten. The disappearance of pain is a warning sign of great danger.
Not long ago an attempt was made to control certain difficult and uncontrollable diseases by causing the person to be kept in extreme cold. One patient with cancer survived a body temperature of 74°F. under these circumstances. On the other hand, flyers who fell into cold water in the Arctic, where the temperature of the water was between 41 and 50 degrees, have died in less than thirty minutes. When, however asesoria y cooperativa de la mano , the water temperature was 68 degrees, the flyers survived for several hours. In the German prison camps extensive chilling experiments were carried out on human beings. Consciousness was lost when the temperature in the interior of the body fell to 86 degrees. It took from seventy to ninety minutes' exposure to extremely low temperatures to reach a temperature inside the body of 86 degrees. The Germans report that death occurred when the temperature of the inside of the body was between 78 and 86 after exposures of one to two hours. The most effective treatment of freezing is rapid rewarming.
Dr. Tinsley Harrison says that chilling drafts and sudden temperature changes are more important than cold itself, because they predispose to disease by lowering resistance to infection. Local chilling may produce nerve pains, muscle pains, sore throat, bronchitis, or pneumonia when resistance is lowered and the germs infect.
The chief effects of high altitude and changes in barometric pressure are dependent on the way in which this affects the use of oxygen by the body. The most common symptoms associated with compression, as in diving or descending suddenly from high altitudes, is pain in one or both ears, particularly when the tubes are obstructed. To this the name of aero-otitis media has been given. After or during the breathing of oxygen this condition may develop during sleep, because the Eustachian tubes, which go from the back of the throat to the middle ear, rarely open during sleep. The rate of compression is important in governing the degree to which an individual suffers from high altitude. If descent is made reasonably slowly, the difficulties do not arise. In commercial passenger aircraft the rate of descent from high altitude is limited to 300 feet per minute. Under these circumstances pain in the ears seldom occurs. Sometimes people who have been exposed to compression develop pains in the frontal sinuses asesoria y cooperativa de la mano because of blocking. The pain is due to the same conditions that result in pain in the ears.